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Java OSC: Midi Definitions

September 21st, 2012

I thought I would put up an example of my OSC java library sending messages to the pure data instance but I discovered a problem. If you send lots of OSC messages to pure data without a decent interval pure data crashes. Not good. So I have reluctantly started what I didn’t want to do which is to write my own decoder. I imagine this to be a bit like Osculator. Believe me this is pain in the backside as I know nothing about java GUI. I saw a funny comment recently which stated that Swing is ‘distilled mediocrity’ which is just about sums up my feelings about it.

Don’t get me started on oscVstBridge which I couldn’t get to work despite downloading the core java VST client and a major amount of faffing about.

Here is some definitions which I had to hunt down and build myself as I couldn’t find any code which would suffice. Each note in NOTE_NAMES has a corresponding value in NOTE_VALUES.

	/**
	 * All MIDI note names.
	 */
	public static final String[] NOTE_NAMES =
	{
	        "C-1", "C#-1", "D-1", "D#-1", "E-1 ", "F-1 ", "F#-1", "G-1 ", "G#-1", "A-1 ", "A#-1", "B-1 ", "C0", "C#0", "D0", "D#0", "E0", "F0", "F#0", "G0", "B8", "G#0", "A0", "A#0", "B0", "C1", "C#1", "D1", "D#1", "E1", "F1", "F#1", "G1", "G#1", "A1", "A#1", "B1", "C2", "C#2", "D2", "D#2", "E2", "F2", "F#2", "G2", "G#2", "A2", "A#2", "B2", "C3", "C#3", "D3", "D#3", "E3", "F3", "F#3", "G3", "G#3", "A3", "A#3", "B3", "C4", "C#4", "D4", "D#4", "E4", "F4", "F#4", "G4", "G#4", "A4", "A#4", "B4", "C5", "C#5",
	        "D5", "D#5", "E5", "F5", "F#5", "G5", "G#5", "A5", "A#5", "B5", "C6", "C#6", "D6", "D#6", "E6", "F6", "F#6", "G6", "G#6", "A6", "A#6", "B6", "C7", "C#7", "D7", "D#7", "E7", "F7", "F#7", "G7", "G#7", "A7", "A#7", "B7", "C8", "C#89", "D8", "D#8", "E8", "F8", "F#8", "G8", "G#8", "A8", "A#8", "C9", "C#91", "D9", "D#9", "E9", "F9", "F#9", "G9"
	};
	
	/**
	 * All MIDI note values.
	 */
	public static final int[] NOTE_VALUES =
	{
	        0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121,
	        122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127
	};

This is all the MIDI note definitions and corresponding values in some handy Java. I was using this to send each note in turn as a test. Feel free to convert this to your language of choice. You can’t stick a license on a list of numbers or can you.

LibGDX:Audio – Tonome OSC version

September 13th, 2012

Ah sweet synthesized music! Here is a screenshot of my Tonome LibGDX application sending OSC Bundle messages to a instance of pure data. The pure data instance is broadcasting the OSC Bundle contents as Midi note out messages to a bank of Crystal synths running inside Podium. Each VST synth instance has been assigned a different Midi channel where each channel is associated with a different panel on the Tonome application. Neat!

Tonome_osc

This has been my project for the last couple of weeks.

I am going to tidy up the code somewhat and publish this next. I’ll expand a bit on the implementation as well. There is all sorts of stuff in the code like my own java OSC implementation, netty, pure data and google Guice would you believe.

LIBGDX – Demos Update to 0.9.6

September 2nd, 2012

I have finally updated all the LibGDX demos to the latest release version of LibGDX as of today (0.9.6).

Here are the links

Tonome – A tonematrix style sample player here.

Box2D with Scene2D – Bumpers demo here.

Box2D with Scene2D – Simple fixture demo here.

Game Test – Simple shoot-em-up with settings panel and slide transitions here.

The update was fairly painless with a few things to note:

  • LibGDX 0.9.6 now deals correctly with the ‘finish’ method and actions. The ‘finish’ method is now called on every associated action when an actor is marked for removal. This is important as the overridden ‘finish’ is where we put our actions back into the appropriate pools. Prior to this fix I was having to sub-class actor to implement this myself.
  • The tween engine has been updated also to version 6.3.3. The only change I had to make was alter the callback mechanism.  I still can’t see a way to re-initialise a composited tween but I need to investigate further .
  • I note there is event management in the yet unpublished version of Scene2d. This promises to be interesting but it’s not in 0.9.6 which is what we are using here.  I am not going to go near any of that stuff until a proper release is made.

Some of the demos have a maven pom file.Technically these are purely for illustration as they don’t pull the libGDX files from any repository just locally. I use them to generate the project files for the maven style layout (resources directory etc).

Note

These demos have all been updated, mavenized and are now up on Github. There has been a ton of fixes and improvements.

JAVA: MAVENIZE – Update

July 16th, 2012

Whilst this component hasn’t exactly set the internets on fire can I give another shout out for my ‘mavenize‘ tool. This is a command line tool for ‘mavenizing’ java projects. I have found myself using this a fair bit when I am looking to bring older components into a existing maven java project and it can save a fair bit of faffing around.

Using it is as simple as:

java -jar mavenize-1.0.2.jar -iC:\Development\java\project\original -oC:\Development\java\project\mavenized

I have made some minor recent fixes. If you are interested in looking for a good example of the use of the org.apache.commons.io.DirectoryWalker class then you should take a look at the source code.

LibGDX – Audio – Tonome

June 24th, 2012

Tonome is an matrix style sample player in the same vein as Tonematrix and Monome. This version is the result of a lot of attempts to get something which is usable. I think this is close but not quite there yet but I’m going to release the code as I’m tired of playing around with it and want to leave it for a while.

Source code here.

You can get a flavour of what’s involved from these screenshots below.

Tonome2

Features include:

  • Multiple panels with a nice sliding transition between them including a new diagonal transition.
  • Matrix buttons  with a toggle action so that as you slide over the buttons you are either setting or clearing. The buttons will also flash as the assigned sound is being played.
  • Bar display to show which bar is currently being played.
  • Touch buttons to navigate between panels which are animated to flash along to the bar display.

Tonome2

I couldn’t decided on how to present the settings for volume and BPM so I have placed them into a fairly boring setting view for the moment. There should be some kind of slide in panel which has these on the main interface but I’ll put that off for the moment. You can exit the touch panels by ESC on PC and the ‘back’ key on the phone.

Tonome4

The assigned samples are fixed for the moment as this is still technically a demo/prototype. You can see in the code where they are inserted if you want to change them.

I have only tried this in the emulator for the moment as my Nexus phone won’t talk to my PC anymore :( The android project is bundled with the source. The emulator gives me a laughable 4fps which is unusable so there may be an issue with running it on a real phone. If it works can someone tell me.

Note Choice

I studied tonematrix to see what notes the application used as they have been chosen specifically to go together. These are A3,B3,D3,E3,G3,A4,B4,D4..and so on.

Sample Choice

Tonome3

I spent ages trawling freesound to try and get some decent samples that sounded good together. I can’t say I have succeeded. This stuff is hard. I went through a ton of them before selecting the final choice. I’m still unhappy with how they sound. A future plan is to forego samples altogether and instead have OSC support but in the meantime the samples demonstrate the intention of how to build up a composition  from the different panels. There are two panels with ‘lead’ type sounds, one bass panel and one drum machine panel with some nice samples from a TR909.

There is a subtlety in the sample choice which I should point out as you are bound to notice it. The samples on the second (right) panel appear to play together in polyphony okay. There is always going to be a slight delay in the launching of each sample but if your lucky it shouldn’t be noticeable. The samples on the first panel, on the other hand, don’t seem to sit so well together once you start to bunch them up on the same bar. For the first 4 notes on my PC it plays fine but thereafter increasing the number of simultaneous notes makes a scratching sound appear. I am convinced this is something to do with the sample itself as the other samples don’t exhibit this behaviour. If I get a chance I will try and fix this somehow. You can always insert your own samples. If you get some decent ones and want to share then drop me a line.

OSC Support

I think there the core of a nice control panel for audio here. It would require proper message support for OSC messages but should be doable. I haven’t managed to find a suitable OSC  library (with the appropriate license) yet but I will keep looking.

Re-pitching Audio Samples

I tried to use SoundTouch to re-pitch a selected audio sample but could only get it to work on the desktop version as I put together a kind of hacky solution.

  • Loading the base sample and re-pitching.
  • Creating a WAV file sample image with the re-pitched data  in memory.
  • Creating a Sound class but hi-jacking the file load to pull the data from my in-memory WAV file image.

This actually worked really well but only for the Desktop since Android uses SoundPool to manage audio samples. You can find the code in a class called “AudioHelper”. As I say it never made the final cut but might prove useful if you are targeting a desktop application only.

Source code here. As usual Apache 2.0 license.

 

Update #1

I am in the process of implementing OSC support. When I get this working the plan is to show how to hook the panel up to MIDI. I’ll probably drop the sample playing aspect if this as well as make the UI look a bit nicer.

LibGDX : Scene2D – Box2d – Bumpers Demo

April 23rd, 2012

This demo encapsulates some of the Scene2D and Box2D integration I have been playing around with. Specifically collision detection and selection by touch/mouse.

Below is a screenshot with random numbered elements bouncing around inside the view. The walls are supposed to act like pinball bumpers so that when an element hits them they give the element a ‘kick’. The implementation for this is pretty experimental but seems to work well enough for illustration.

Box2D Bumpers

I have implemented a layer which lets you ‘grab’ an element body. When picked up  a selection animation is run around the selected element (the zooming white square). The selection mechanism is actually completely generalised in the sense that it broadcasts events which another layer responds to for the animation. Nice and loosely coupled.

Box2D Bumpers

When an element hits the wall it will bounce and make a clonk sound but when hits another element it will run a flashing animation at the points where the bodies touch and play a boing sound. This illustrates I am detecting what sort of collision is taking place. The layer which has the bouncing elements also has a pool of contact listeners which it can dish out to elements in the view. They are released from the pool when an element is removed (by clicking on it).

Box2D Bumpers

There is some neat stuff here (at least I think so).

  • Separate ’netthreads’ LibGDX extension library which gathers together most (but not all) of the scene, layer, action and event handling classes I have written to support my approach to the design of these demos so far. There is a pom for generating the library as a Maven component although it’s not used as such here. Note it pulls the LibGDX libraries as scope “system”.
  • Gravity update Action which gives bodies in the World lighter than air behaviour.
  • Body update Action as seen in the previous demo which maps a Box2D body to a Scene2D Actor.
  • Walls to enclose the World.
  • Contact listener elements which implement ‘bumper’ behaviour to the Box2D World walls.
  • Touch Layer which decouples the selecting of bodies in the view through the use of the event pipeline.
  • Pointer Layer which implements a nice ‘selection’ animation around the selected Actor when touched. Try grabbing one of the rolling numbers with your mouse and you will see what I mean.
  • Clonk sounds for hitting the walls and a satisfying boinging sound for when elements hit each other.

These features will hopefully find their way into an actual application  at some point. I have a whole load of bits and pieces which are slowly coalescing into something.

I haven’t created the Android wrapper for this. It’s trivial to put this together and it saves me using my webspace which I am starting to fill at an alarming rate.

Demo code here.

There is a test application bundled as well which uses the LibGDX debug renderer.

This uses LibGDX 0.9.3.

All the code is licensed as Apache 2.0.

LibGDX: Scene2D with Box2D

March 1st, 2012

Here is another LibGDX demo. This one uses Box2D to build a simple model of a box with a gear cog spinning in the centre. If you click on the screen a ball is released which will drop into the view and bounce off the gear and walls. I am no expert in Box2D but I think you may find this useful if you are trying to combine it and LibGDX Scene2D elements.

Game Test

This demo is heavily indebted to the ideas from the demo provided for the Box2D editor which I used to create the polygon model for the central cog.

Few things of note to point out:

  •  Each body in the world has an associated Actor sprite. I am using an Action to map the position and rotation of each body to the linked Actor. The conversion from Box2D position to pixels is by a conversion factor (the pixel width / the Box2D world width).
  •  Bodies loaded from the Box2D editor have their position-origin on the bottom left corner. The bodies created from the Box2D ‘primitives’ are positioned at their centre. Handling this inconsistency is a bit of a pain and makes the code a lot less elegant.
  • When you close the view (select the BACK key for Android or ESC for Windows) the world is not destroyed, only the balls are marked for removal and subsequent clean-up. When you close the application it will re-claim the memory used.
  •  There is actually two demos in the source. Under the ‘test’ package you will find a view which uses the LibGDX Box2D debug renderer. You kind of need this to build a ‘world’ before trying to map Scene2D elements to it.
  • When you click on the screen fading text is displayed with the pixel co-ordinates. This is just for fun and to show off the sort of things you can do with actions.

Here is a screenshot of the debug rendered ‘world’.

Game Test

 

The demo code is licensed under the same license as LibGDX itself with Apache 2.0.

Demo code here.

LibGDX: Scene2D demo with Scene Transitions

February 9th, 2012

Anyone familiar with Cocos2d will recognise the concept of Scene transitions. These are classes which compose an incoming and outgoing scene and apply an effect to them to a transition from one to the other.

I have updated my simple demo to apply slide-in scene transitions using the magic of the Java Universal Tween Engine (although I guess I could have used the stock actions). They use the TimeLineAction class I built in the previous demo to run two seperate TimeLines on the incoming and outgoing scenes (stages). I am quite pleased how elegant the code has turned out to be for these. The “settings” and “about” screens have bounce applied to them as they ease-out which gives a nice effect.

Game Test

Game Test

Implementation

First we define the base class which composes the two scenes and runs the in and out actions on the contents of the composed scenes. We don’t have to manually clean up any actions because we will always let them run until they are “done”.

public class TransitionScene extends Scene implements TweenCallback
{
	private boolean complete;

	private float inX;
	private float inY;
	private float outX;
	private float outY;

	private Scene inScene;
	private Scene outScene;
	private Group inSceneRoot;
	private Group outSceneRoot;

	private int durationMillis;
	private TweenEquation easeEquation;

	/**
	 * Enter handler makes a note of scene contents position.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void enter()
	{
		this.complete = false;

		inX = inSceneRoot.x;
		inY = inSceneRoot.y;

		outX = outSceneRoot.x;
		outY = outSceneRoot.y;
	}

	/**
	 * Exit handler resets scene contents positions.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void exit()
	{
		this.complete = true;

		inSceneRoot.x = inX;
		inSceneRoot.y = inY;

		outSceneRoot.x = outX;
		outSceneRoot.y = outY;
	}

	/**
	 * Draw both scenes as we animated contents.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void draw()
	{
		// Move
		inSceneRoot.act(Gdx.graphics.getDeltaTime());
		outSceneRoot.act(Gdx.graphics.getDeltaTime());

		// Draw
		if (!complete)
		{
			outScene.draw();
		}
		inScene.draw();
	}

	/**
	 * Default transition handlers
	 */
	@Override
	public void onEvent(EventType eventType, BaseTween source)
	{
		switch (eventType)
		{
		case COMPLETE:
			Director.instance().setScene(this.inScene);
			break;
		default:
			break;
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Transition complete.
	 *
	 * @return The transition complete handler.
	 */
	public boolean isComplete()
	{
		return complete;
	}
}

So an actual transition class like “MoveInRTransitionScene” (Move In From the Right) looks like this below.

public class MoveInRTransitionScene extends TransitionScene
{
	private static Pool _pool = new Pool()
	{
		@Override
		protected MoveInRTransitionScene newObject()
		{
			MoveInRTransitionScene transitionScene = new MoveInRTransitionScene();

			return transitionScene;
		}
	};

	/**
	 * Create transition.
	 *
	 * @param inScene
	 *            The incoming scene.
	 * @param outScene
	 *            The outgoing scene.
	 * @param durationMillis
	 *            The duration of transition.
	 * @param easeEquation
	 *            The easing type.
	 */
	public static MoveInRTransitionScene $(Scene inScene, Scene outScene, int durationMillis, TweenEquation easeEquation)
	{
		MoveInRTransitionScene transitionScene = _pool.obtain();
		transitionScene.setInScene(inScene);
		transitionScene.setInSceneRoot(inScene.getRoot());
		transitionScene.setOutScene(outScene);
		transitionScene.setOutSceneRoot(outScene.getRoot());
		transitionScene.setDurationMillis(durationMillis);
		transitionScene.setEaseEquation(easeEquation);

		return transitionScene;
	}

	/**
	 * On entry build easing TimeLines.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void enter()
	{
		super.enter();

	    // In Scene TimeLine.
		Timeline inTimeline = Timeline.createSequence()
				.beginSequence()
					.push(Tween.to(getInSceneRoot(), GroupAccessor.POSITION_XY, 0).target(getInScene().width(), 0).ease(getEaseEquation()))
					.push(Tween.to(getInSceneRoot(), GroupAccessor.POSITION_XY, getDurationMillis()).target(0, 0).ease(getEaseEquation()))
				.end()
				.start();

	    // In Scene TimeLine Action.
		TimelineAction inTimelineAction = TimelineAction.$(inTimeline);
		getInSceneRoot().action(inTimelineAction);

	    // Out Scene TimeLine.
		Timeline outTimeline = Timeline.createSequence()
				.beginSequence()
					.push(Tween.to(getOutSceneRoot(), GroupAccessor.POSITION_XY, 0).target(0, 0).ease(getEaseEquation()))
					.push(Tween.to(getOutSceneRoot(), GroupAccessor.POSITION_XY, getDurationMillis()).target(-getOutScene().width(), 0).ease(getEaseEquation()))
				    .addCallback(EventType.COMPLETE, this)
				.end()
				.start();

	    // Out Scene TimeLine Action.
		TimelineAction outTimelineAction = TimelineAction.$(outTimeline);
		getOutSceneRoot().action(outTimelineAction);
	}

	/**
	 * On exit tidy up.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void exit()
	{
		super.exit();

		_pool.free(this);
	}
}

Some stuff to note here.

  • I am applying the trick of initialising the TimeLine by applying a tween of duration zero.
  • I am using a pool and cleaning it up in the node enter and exit methods. These methods are very similar to their counterparts in Cocos2d .
  • It is actually possible to draw multiple stages in this fashion which was a bit of an experiment and somewhat of a pleasant surprise when I tried it.

Usage

To actually use the transition you give references to the incoming and outgoing scenes along with duration and easing type. The transitions are pooled so they can be reused.

private void transitionToSettingsScene()
{
	Scene inScene = getSettingsScene();
	Scene outScene = this.director.getScene();

	TransitionScene transitionScene = MoveInLTransitionScene.$(inScene, outScene, DURATION_SETTINGS_TRANSITION, Bounce.OUT);

	this.director.setScene(transitionScene);
}

I have tidied a great deal of the code up but there are still a few funnies hanging around.

  • The LED font looks terrible on the Android emulator. My Nexus phone won’t talk to my Windows 7 machine since I had to replace the USB cable (never lend your phone to anyone) so I have no idea what this looks like on an actual phone. BTW this font is not free for commercial use. I am going to find one which is and replace it.
  • The ship rotation sometimes gets confused. Needs investigated.

The demo now has all of the features that were in my original example using my own framework. I am going to concentrate on fixing the above issues next.

Demo code here. The code is licensed under the same license as LibGDX itself with Apache 2.0.

Update #2
There was an issue with the first version of the code. It was leaking objects. I have fixed this and made some improvements to the life-cycle of the sprites.

Update #3
In the process of looking at something else I realised I was creating multiple instances of the SpriteBatch object by having Scene subclass from Stage. I have fixed this and added disposal of the batch contents on cleanup from the controller.

LibGDX: Scene2d Demo with Java Universal Tween Engine

February 5th, 2012

So I have modified my original demo somewhat to implement the Asteroid and ship pulse animations to use the Java Universal Tween Engine. I have also fixed some stuff and added some new features.

    Menu Layer with star field

I put the star field behind the menu layer.

Game Test

    Multiple LED fonts

I used Hiero to convert an existing free font to bring it into the application. BTW you can declare multiple fonts in the uiskin.json file i.e.

com.badlogic.gdx.graphics.g2d.BitmapFont:
{ default-font: { file: digital-7_60.fnt },
large-font: { file: digital-7_70.fnt }
},

I had to generate a second json file to hold a different sized default font because you can’t specify the font name for TextButton and I wanted a bigger size to match a phone touch-screen real-estate.

    CallBack Action

Taking a nod from the Tween engine I have created a proper callback action. This will take a count (<0 for infinite) and duration and repeatedly execute a call-back method. I could not use the completion handler in LibGDX actions as it resets the handler reference every time it get's called.

    Tween Actions

I have created two new action types TimelineAction and TweenAction. These encapsulate the running and management of the tweens. They are associated with an Actor and will animate it until complete. They manage the release of the tween back into the pool
(more about this further on).

    Tweens

The movement and rotation of the asteroids is implemented using the Timeline feature from the tween engine. Note the COMPLETE event callback to send an event which will trigger the removal of the element from the view.

int durationMove = (int) ((Math.random() * MAX_DURATION + MIN_DURATION) * 1000);
int rotate = (int) (Math.random() * 1440)-720;

Timeline timeline = Timeline.createParallel()
		.beginParallel()
		.push(Tween.to(this, ActorAccessor.POSITION_XY, durationMove).target(x, 0 - this.height).ease(Linear.INOUT))
		.beginSequence()
		.push(Tween.to(this, GroupAccessor.ROTATION, 0).target(0))
		.push(Tween.to(this, GroupAccessor.ROTATION, durationMove).target(rotate))
		.end()
		.end()
		.addCallback(EventType.COMPLETE, this)
		.start();

TimelineAction timelineAction = TimelineAction.$(timeline);

action(timelineAction);

Something of interest to note here. I want the rotation to last the length of the screen traversal and I want it to start from zero. I could set the “rotation” value of the sprite explicitly at the start of each run or I can do a non-Tween which will initially rotate to zero. This is what I have done here. There doesn’t seem to be a way to set the initial value in the Timeline/Tween setup itself any other way although I am open to suggestions.

The pulse is a straight Tween. Again, note the COMPLETE event callback to send an event which will trigger the removal of the element from the view.

Tween tween = Tween.to(this, ActorAccessor.POSITION_XY, duration)
                    .target(x, height)
                    .ease(Quad.OUT)
                    .addCallback(EventType.COMPLETE, this)
                    .start();
tweenAction = TweenAction.$(tween);

action(tweenAction);
    A Note About Action Management

I have extended the Actor and Group classes to manage the clean up of actions which are prematurely removed from the view. What I mean by this is – imagine a pulse is moving up the screen, animated by TweenAction. In normal operation the animation would complete, the “done” flag would get set and the “act” method would call the “finish” method on the associated actions which will put the respective actions back in the pool. If the pulse hits an Asteroid on the way up we should probably set the “done” flag on the PulseSprite and let it clean up itself but because of the way I am pooling these items I am having to override the “remove” method and force the “finish” method on all associated actions myself. This is a work in progress and I am still having a think about the best approach here. It works for now and you should have no leaking objects.

Demo code here.

LibGDX: Example of Scene2D application with Event Handlers.

January 31st, 2012

Note: This demo has been updated considerably since this original post. The common elements have been factored out into their own library and the application mavenised to provide an easier build process. You can find all the details here.

This is the original post so some of the details have changed…..

I have written a simple demo using LibGDX and some of the ideas I had kicking around from a previous demo. I am quite pleased how this has turned out. I’m going to join the chorus of praise for LibGDX and say it is a lot easier to use than I thought it would be. I was putting off ditching my own framework and adopting it but it was actually fun to use and has an impressive amount of  knowledge behind it. The ability to develop on the desktop and then run it on Android is a killer feature.

This demo is a kind of mixture of framework items and source artefacts to implement a noddy shoot-em-up. The point is to show off how to assemble something which uses mostly the Scene2d classes.

Here is the application running on the desktop.

Game Test

So what is interesting about this demo?

  • Uses Scene2d classes throughout i.e. Actor, Group and Action.
  • Framesprite class which will take spritesheet and run animated sprite.
  • Animated sprite class which composes Framesprite and will respond to actions like  rotate and scale.
  • Director class which routes events and updates actions and maintains the current “scene”.
  • Event driven design which is used to post and respond to actions in the view.
  • Scenes and layers which are used to build up the view.
  • Simple collision detection between Actors
  • Resizable window with constant viewport where touch and mouse position events are adjusted to the window size.
  • Spaceship sprite class with nice interpolated drag-follow action.
  • Texture cache backed by a Texture Atlas (to be honest I’m still not sure if I am using this properly).
  • Nice background Sprite which loops a star-field image down the screen in old-skool fashion.

This is a bit of an experiment to see if I could take what I had and make it scale up a bit more. The key concept is as follows:

  • You do not have a big blob of code which maintains a world state which is examined and updated according to a set of rules with lots of if..then and case statements
  • You do have pooled objects which can send and receive events as the render loop runs and respond to events to perform some action on the view.  Actors in the view are more autonomous and encapsulate their logic and the actions which they can perform.

The demo code is here.

Demo in detail



Some of the source code below is abbreviated, use the source download rather than cutting and pasting if you are interested in the source.


The Frame animation Sprite implements an Actor which takes spritesheet and implements straightforward animation. You cannot run actions like rotate on this as Actor does not have this attribute. You can make it move though. This lifts some of the example code from the LibGDX samples and reworks it into an Actor.

public class FrameSprite extends Actor
{
	private TextureRegion[] frames;

	private Animation animation;

	private TextureRegion currentFrame;

	private float stateTime;
	private boolean looping;

	public FrameSprite(TextureRegion texture, int rows, int cols, float frameDuration, boolean looping)
	{
		this.looping = looping;

		int tileWidth = texture.getRegionWidth() / cols;
		int tileHeight = texture.getRegionHeight() / rows;
		TextureRegion[][] tmp = texture.split(tileWidth, tileHeight);
		frames = new TextureRegion[cols * rows];

		int tileWidth = texture.getRegionWidth() / cols;
		int tileHeight = texture.getRegionHeight() / rows;
		TextureRegion[][] tmp = texture.split(tileWidth, tileHeight);
		frames = new TextureRegion[cols * rows];

		int index = 0;
		for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++)
		{
			for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++)
			{
				frames[index++] = tmp[i][j];
			}
		}

		width = tileWidth;
		height = tileHeight;

		animation = new Animation(frameDuration, frames);
		stateTime = 0f;

	}

	/**
	 * Reset animation.
	 *
	 * You can use this to ensure the animation plays from the start again. It's
	 * handy if you have one-shot animations like explosions but you are using
	 * re-usable Sprites. You must reset the animation to ensure the animation
	 * plays back again.
	 */
	public void resetAnimation()
	{
		stateTime = 0;
	}

	/**
	 * Check to see if animation finished.
	 *
	 * @param stateTime
	 *
	 * @return True if finished.
	 */
	public boolean isAnimationFinished()
	{
		return animation.isAnimationFinished(stateTime);
	}

}

The Animated Sprite class composes the FrameSprite to allow actions such as rotate and scale to work upon it.

public class AnimatedSprite extends Group
{
	private FrameSprite frameSprite;

	/**
	 * Create sprite.
	 *
	 * @param texture
	 *            The animation texture.
	 * @param rows
	 *            The animation texture rows.
	 * @param cols
	 *            The animation texture rows.
	 * @param frameDuration
	 *            The animation frame duration.
	 */
	public AnimatedSprite(TextureRegion textureRegion, int rows, int cols, float frameDuration)
	{
		frameSprite = new FrameSprite(textureRegion, rows, cols, frameDuration, true);

		this.width = frameSprite.width;
		this.height = frameSprite.height;

		addActor(frameSprite);
	}

	@Override
	public Actor hit(float x, float y)
	{
	    return super.hit(x, y);
	}
}

A scene is a Stage whichs maps to the size of the view and implements an InputMultiplexer to which input events are routed. When the Director makes a scene active it sets the chosen Scene multiplexer as the destination for all input events. Note also “entry” and “exit” scene methods. These get called when a scene is activated and removed respectively.

public class Scene extends Stage implements Node
{
	private static final int DEFAULT_LAYER_CAPACITY = 10;

	/**
	 * Associated input multiplexer.
	 */
	private InputMultiplexer inputMultiplexer;

	/**
	 * Stage elements as nodes. We need this so we can call enter and exit on
	 * actors in order to manage registration and de-registration of event
	 * handlers.
	 */
	private Array nodes;

	public Scene()
	{
		super(Director.instance().getWidth(), Director.instance().getHeight(), Director.instance().isStretch());

		inputMultiplexer = new InputMultiplexer(this);

		nodes = new Array(DEFAULT_LAYER_CAPACITY);
	}

	/**
	 * Get input multiplexer.
	 *
	 * @return The input multiplexer.
	 */
	public InputMultiplexer getInputMultiplexer()
	{
		return inputMultiplexer;
	}

	/**
	 * Add scene layer ensuring it adopts the same size as the owning scene.
	 *
	 * Note layer in nodes list.
	 *
	 * @param group
	 */
	public void addLayer(Layer layer)
	{
		layer.width = this.width;
		layer.height = this.height;

		nodes.add(layer);

		super.addActor(layer);
	}

	/**
	 * Handle pre-display tasks.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void enter()
	{
		int size = nodes.size;
		for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
		{
			nodes.get(i).enter();
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Handle post-display tasks.
	 *
	 */
	@Override
	public void exit()
	{
		int size = nodes.size;
		for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
		{
			nodes.get(i).exit();
		}
	}

}

The Director maintains a note of the chosen size. It handles setting the current scene, running the render “tick”, updating the event mechanism and updating current actions associated with the active scene. It also handles recalculating the scaling offsets for touch/mouse events if you stretch the size of the screen.

public class Director
{
	private static final boolean DEFAULT_STRETCH = true;

	private static Director instance = null;

	private ActorEventSource eventSource;

	private int width;
	private int height;
	private boolean stretch;

	private Scene scene;

	private float scaleFactorX;
	private float scaleFactorY;

	/**
	 * Access singleton instance
	 *
	 * @return instance of class
	 */
	public synchronized static Director instance()
	{
		if (instance == null)
		{
			instance = new Director();
		}

		return instance;
	}

	/**
	 * Create reference to command pipeline.
	 *
	 */
	public Director()
	{
		scene = null;

		stretch = DEFAULT_STRETCH;

		// Latch onto event source.
		eventSource = ActorEventSource.instance();

		// These are scale factors for adjusting touch events to the actual size
		// of the view-port.
		scaleFactorX = 1;
		scaleFactorY = 1;
	}

	/**
	 * Update main loop.
	 *
	 */
	public void update()
	{
		// Update events.
		eventSource.update();

		// Update View
		Gdx.gl.glClearColor(0, 0, 0, 1);
		Gdx.gl.glClear(GL10.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

		if (scene != null)
		{
			scene.act(Gdx.graphics.getDeltaTime());

			scene.draw();
		}
		else
		{
			Gdx.app.log("WTF!", "No scene");
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Set the current scene.
	 *
	 * @param scene
	 */
	public synchronized void setScene(Scene scene)
	{
		// If already active scene...
		if (this.scene != null)
		{
			// Exit stage left..
			this.scene.exit();
		}

		this.scene = scene;

		if (this.scene != null)
		{
			// Enter stage right..
			this.scene.enter();

			// NOTE: Route input events to the scene.
			Gdx.input.setInputProcessor(scene.getInputMultiplexer());
		}

	}

	/**
	 * Adjust the scale factors for touch/mouse events to match the size of the
	 * stage.
	 *
	 * @param width
	 *            The new width.
	 * @param height
	 *            The new height.
	 */
	public void recalcScaleFactors(int width, int height)
	{
		scaleFactorX = (float) this.width / width;
		scaleFactorY = (float) this.height / height;
	}
}

A Layer is a holder which implements InputProcessor and the default “enter” and “exit” handlers.

A scene can hold multiple layers which may or may not receive input. Here is the main GameScene.

public class GameScene extends Scene
{
	private Layer gameLayer;
	private Layer shipLayer;
	private Layer pulseLayer;
	private Layer asteroidLayer;
	private Layer explosionLayer;
	private Layer statsLayer;

	/**
	 * Main game scene.
	 *
	 */
	public GameScene()
	{
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		// Control layer
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		gameLayer = new GameLayer(this.width, this.height);

		getInputMultiplexer().addProcessor(gameLayer);

		addLayer(gameLayer);

		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		// Pulse layer.
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		pulseLayer = new PulseLayer(this.width, this.height);

		addLayer(pulseLayer);

		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		// Asteroid Layer
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		asteroidLayer = new AsteroidLayer(this.width, this.height);

		addLayer(asteroidLayer);

		explosionLayer = new ExplosionLayer(this.width, this.height);

		addLayer(explosionLayer);

		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		// Ship layer
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		shipLayer = new ShipLayer(this.width, this.height);

		getInputMultiplexer().addProcessor(shipLayer);

		addLayer(shipLayer);

		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		// Statistics layer
		// ---------------------------------------------------------------
		statsLayer = new StatsLayer(this.width, this.height);

		addLayer(statsLayer);
	}

	public Layer getShipLayer()
	{
		return shipLayer;
	}

	public Group getPulseLayer()
	{
		return pulseLayer;
	}

	public Group getAsteroidLayer()
	{
		return asteroidLayer;
	}

}

Implemented layers register themselves with the event mechanism when visible and de-register when they are no longer within an active scene. This is to avoid routing events to elements which do not need them and also means you can (technically) generate new instances without having to get weird behaviour where events are getting sucked up elsewhere. NOTE: I learnt the hard way to keep this stuff as simple as possible from my previous attempt at this demo. I was routing everything through source and observers including input events and it was a nightmare to debug.

Events

Lets look into the event handling more closely.

The  AsteroidLayer has a delayed callback which when triggered launches an Asteroid from the top of the screen by generating a random position and running the associated actions for the sprite.
/**
 * Launch a sprite from pool (if one available).
 *
 */
private void handleStartAsteroid()
{
	// Get free sprite from pool.
	AsteroidSprite sprite = pool.obtain();

	// Set running.
	sprite.run();

	// Add to view.
	addActor(sprite);
}

Once the asteroid is “running” it too has a periodic call back which checks to see if it has collided with anything and if so send an event to indicate which kind of collision.

Listening for collision events are the layers:

  • PulseLayer which will remove the Pulse which ‘hit’ the Asteroid from the view.
  • AsteroidLayer which will remove the Asteroid Sprite and replace it with a one-shot “explosion” animation. Also it will update the global score value which the StatsLayer will pick up and display.
  • ShipLayer which would normally do something like remove the ship and run an explosion but here just spins the ship around because I am shit at creating explosion graphics.

Lets take a look at an event handler for the AsteroidLayer:

/**
 * Handle events.
 *
 */
@Override
public boolean handleEvent(ActorEvent event)
{
	boolean handled = false;

	switch (event.getId())
	{
		case GameActorEvents.EVENT_START_ASTEROID:
			handleStartAsteroid();
			handled = true;
			break;
		case GameActorEvents.EVENT_COLLISION_ASTEROID_PULSE:
			handlePulseCollision(event.getActor());
			handled = true;
			break;
		case GameActorEvents.EVENT_END_ASTEROID:
			handleEndAsteroid(event.getActor());
			handled = true;
			break;
		default:
			break;
	}

	return handled;
}

/**
 * Launch a sprite from pool (if one available).
 *
 */
private void handleStartAsteroid()
{
	// Get free sprite from pool.
	AsteroidSprite sprite = pool.obtain();

	// Set running.
	sprite.run();

	// Add to view.
	addActor(sprite);
}

/**
 * Handle pulse hitting asteroid.
 *
 * @param actor
 */
private void handlePulseCollision(Actor actor)
{
	// Run explosion sprite
	this.director.sendEvent(GameActorEvents.EVENT_START_ASTEROID_EXPLOSION, actor);

	handleEndAsteroid(actor);

	// Update score.
	GameStats.instance().incScore();
}

/**
 * Handle controller events.
 *
 * @param event
 *            The actor event.
 *
 * @return True if handled.
 */
private void handleEndAsteroid(Actor source)
{
	// Free this from pool so it can be re-used.
	pool.free((AsteroidSprite) source);

	// Remove from view.
	removeActor(source);
}

You can see that as events are routed to the layer it responds accordingly. If the handler returns true the event will be removed from the event list and will not be passed on to any any other handlers.

Actions

Actions are used to run the sprite movements. As an example lets examine the PulseSprite, which is a simple animation, it has to move from the ship position to the top of the screen.


/**
 * Run actions for actor.
 *
 * @param x
 * @param y
 *
 * @return The main actions object.
 */
public void run(float x, float y)
{
	// ---------------------------------------------------------------
	// BECAUSE THE 'ACTION' METHOD DOES NOT CLEAR THE EXISTING LIST IT ADDS
	// TO IT YOU MUST CLEAR ACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTOR. THIS IS
	// BECAUSE WE ARE RECYCLING SPRITES.
	// ---------------------------------------------------------------
	clearActions();

	// Set initial position
	this.x = x;
	this.y = y;

	// Calculate the duration to cover distance at pixels-per-sec.
	float height = Director.instance().getHeight();
	float distance = height - y;
	float duration = PIXELS_PER_SEC_FACTOR * distance;

	// Move from source to top of screen.
	MoveTo moveTo = MoveTo.$(x, height, duration);
	moveTo.setCompletionListener(this);

	// Run
	action(moveTo);
}

/**
 * Handles pulse action complete.
 *
 */
@Override
public void completed(Action action)
{
        // Send notification that pulse has completed.
	Director.instance().sendEvent(GameActorEvents.EVENT_END_PULSE, this);
}

Note, we assign a completion handler to the move actions. If the pulse reaches the top of the screen without hitting anything then the completion handler will get triggered and it will send a event from the sprite to the PulseLayer which will remove it from the view, killing any further action execution as of course actions are associated with their Actor.

Because the PulseSprite is pooled we have to clear the associated action list when it is reused to clear out any unfinished or complete actions.

The demo code is here. This uses 0.9.3 snapshot from the Google Code subversion repository.

I am currently rewriting this again to bring in the Universal Tween Engine. That will be the next post.

Important

Only the “Menu”, “About” and “Game” view are implemented. To navigate out of a view PRESS THE ESC KEY. In Android you can press the back key.

Update #1

This project has been moved to gitHub. There have been a lot of improvements to the codebase including mavenizing it and separating out my netthreads-libgdx extensions library which grew out of this and subsequent demos.